Gujrat (Urdu: ضِلع گُجرات), is a district of Punjab Province in Pakistan. It is an ancient district located in between two famous rivers, the Jhelum andChenab. Because of its proximity with the rivers the land is good for cultivation with rice and sugar cane as main crops. It is bounded on the northeast by Mirpur, on the northwest by the River Jhelum which separates it from Jhelum District, on the east and southeast by the Chenab River, separating it from the districts of Gujranwala and Sialkot, and on the West by Mandi Bahauddin. District Gujrat is spread over an area of 3,192 square kilometres, and is divided into three tehsils, Gujrat, Kharian, and Sarai Alamgir. There are many historic villages and towns in the district such as Chakdina, Karnana, Kunjah and Lalamusa.
In 1846 Gujrat came under the supervision of British officials, when a settlement of land revenue was effected under order from the provisional government at Lahore. Two years later, the District was the scene of some of the battles which decided the even of the second Sikh War. While the siege of Multan still dragged slowly on, Sher Singh established himself at Ramnagar on the Gujrawala side of the Chenab, 22 miles (35 km) below Gujrat, leaving the main body of his army on the northern bank. Here he awaited the attack of the British, who attempted unsuccessfully to drive him across the river, on November 22, 1848. Lord Gough withdrew from the assault with heavy loss ; but sending round a strong detachment under Sir Joseph Thackwell by the Wazirabad ferry, he turned the flank of the enemy, and won the battle of Sadullapur. Sher Singh retired northward, and took up a strong position between the Jhelum and the Pabb Hills. The bloody battle of Chilianwala followed (January 13, 1849) a victory as costly as a defeat. On February 6 Sher Singh again eluded Lord Gough’s vigilance, and marched southwards to make a dash upon Lahore; but the British pressed him close in the rear and, on February 22, he turned to offer battle at Gujrat. The decisive engagement which ensued broke irretrievably the power of the Sikh. The Punjab lay at the feet of the conquerors, and passed by annexation under British rule.
The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while theMuslim refugees from India settled in the Gujrat district. Most of the refugees have since settled and inter-married into the local population. Ever since, Sialkot has become one of the major industrial centres of Pakistan and is well known for its manufacture and export of surgical instruments, musical instruments, sports goods, leather goods, textile products and other light manufactures.. Since independence Gujrat has became one of the major industrial and commercial centres of Pakistan. There are over 5,000 cottage-level and small- to large-scale industrial units operating in the district. Rice production and export is another major product of Gujrat. There are many other factories engaged in manufacturing of electrical goods, electric motors and rice cleaning mills. Most are cottage industries, providing employment to a large number of people and accounting, in aggregate, for more than 90 percent of the domestic market.
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